Coaching Research – Science proving the value of coaching | Coaching.fm

Coaching Research

By Martin Cole

coaching research university

This is a continually updated page containing details of some of the best and most relevant research into coaching and other areas of personal and professional development, leadership and behavioural change.

Where a pdf of the relevant article is freely available online I have linked to that pdf. But be aware that these links can change, so if you draw a blank when you click on a link, I suggest you copy the article title and paste it into Google Scholar. You should then be shown where you can access the material.

Coaching

Theeboom, Tim, Bianca Beersma, and Annelies EM van Vianen. “Does coaching work? A meta-analysis on the effects of coaching on individual level outcomes in an organizational context. The Journal of Positive Psychology 9, no. 1 (2014): 1-18.

Jones, R. J., Woods, S. A., & Guillaume, Y. R. (2016). The effectiveness of workplace coaching: A meta‐analysis of learning and performance outcomes from coaching. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(2), 249-277.

Grover, S., & Furnham, A. (2016). Coaching as a developmental intervention in organisations: A systematic review of its effectiveness and the mechanisms underlying it. PloS one, 11(7), e0159137.

Grant, A. M. (2017). The third ‘generation’ of workplace coaching: creating a culture of quality conversations. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 10(1), 37-53.

Webster, T. (2018). Does managerial involvement in workplace coaching impact the outcome? A mixed-methods study into the current methods managers employ and the impacts on coaching effectiveness. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 16(1).

Fusco, T., O’Riordan, S., & Palmer, S. (2016). Assessing the efficacy of authentic leadership group-coaching. International Coaching Psychology Review, 11(2), 118-128.

Lawrence, P. (2017). Managerial coaching-a literature review. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 15(2), 43.

Rekalde, I., Landeta, J., Albizu, E., & Fernandez-Ferrin, P. (2017). Is executive coaching more effective than other management training and development methods?. Management Decision, 55(10), 2149-2162.

Rosha, A., & Lace, N. (2016). The scope of coaching in the context of organizational change. Journal of Open Innovation: Technology, Market, and Complexity, 2(1), 2.

Terblanche, N. N. H., Albertyn, R. M., & van Coller-Peter, S. (2017). Designing a coaching intervention to support leaders promoted into senior positions. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 15(1), 1-10.

Grant, A. (2017). Coaching as evidence-based practice: The view through a multiple-perspective model of coaching research. The SAGE handbook of coaching, 62-84.

Minzlaff, K. A. (2019). Organisational coaching: integrating motivational interviewing and mindfulness with cognitive behavioural coaching. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 12(1), 15-28.

Dixey, A. (2015). Managerial coaching: A formal process or a daily conversation?. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, (9), 77.

Mackie, D. (2015). Who sees change after leadership coaching? An analysis of impact by rater level and self-other alignment on multi-source feedback. International Coaching Psychology Review, 10(2), 118-130.

Williams, P. (2017). What are the challenges of introducing internal coaching in a VUCA context?. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching & Mentoring, 15(2).

MacKie, D. (2015). The effects of coachee readiness and core self-evaluations on leadership coaching outcomes: A controlled trial. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 8(2), 120-136.

Pousa, C., & Mathieu, A. (2015). Is managerial coaching a source of competitive advantage? Promoting employee self-regulation through coaching. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 8(1), 20-35.

de Haan, E., Grant, A. M., Burger, Y., & Eriksson, P. O. (2016). A large-scale study of executive and workplace coaching: The relative contributions of relationship, personality match, and self-efficacy. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 68(3), 189.

Career Satisfaction

Kristof-Brown, A. L., Zimmerman, R. D., & Johnson, E. C. (2005). Consequences of individuals’ fit at work: A meta‐analysis of person–job, person–organization, person–group, and person–supervisor fit. Personnel Psychology, 58(2), 281-342. doi:10.1111/j.1744-6570.2005.00672.x

Judge, T. A., Cable, D. M., Boudreau, J. W., & Bretz, R. D. (1995). An empirical investigation of the predictors of executive career success. Personnel psychology, 48(3), 485-519.

Bozer, G., Sarros, J. C., Santora, J. C., Bozer, G., Sarros, J. C., & Santora, J. C. (2014). Executive coaching : Guidelines that work. Development and Learning in Organizations: An International Journal, 28(4). https://doi.org/10.1108/DLO-05-2013-0020

Pousa, C., & Mathieu, A. (2015). Is managerial coaching a source of competitive advantage? Promoting employee self-regulation through coaching. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2015.1009134

Spence, G. B. (2006). New Directions in the Psychology of Coaching : The Integration of Mindfulness Training into Evidence-Based Coaching Practice, (November).

David, O. A., & Matu, S. A. (2013). How to tell if managers are good coaches and how to help them improve during adversity? the managerial coaching assessment system and the rational managerial coaching program. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(2 A). https://doi.org/10.1037/t02541-000

Mosteo, L. P., Batista-Foguet, J. M., Mckeever, J. D., & Serlavos, R. (2015). Understanding Cognitive-Emotional Processing Through a Coaching Process: The Influence of Coaching on Vision, Goal-Directed Energy, and Resilience. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886315600070

Kilburg, R. R. (2016). The Development Of Human Expertise: Toward A Model For The 21St-Century Practice Of Coaching, Consulting and General Applied Psychology. Consulting Psychology Journal, 68(2). https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000054

Jones, R. J., Woods, S. A., & Guillaume, Y. R. F. (2016). The effectiveness of workplace coaching: A meta-analysis of learning and performance outcomes from coaching. Journal of Occupational and Organizational Psychology, 89(2). https://doi.org/10.1111/joop.12119

Read, M. J. B. (2013). The importance of improvisation in coaching. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2012.756922

Ianiro, P., & Kauffeld, S. (2014). Take Care What You Bring With You: How Coaches’ Mood and Interpersonal Behavior Affect Coaching Success. Consult. Psychol. J., 66(3). https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000012

Mcdowall, A., & Butterworth, L. (2014). How does a brief strengths-based group coaching intervention work? Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2014.953560

MacKie, D. (2015). The effects of coachee readiness and core self-evaluations on leadership coaching outcomes: a controlled trial. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2015.1019532

Cox, E., Bachkirova, T., & Clutterbuck, D. (2014). Theoretical Traditions and Coaching Genres: Mapping the Territory. Advances in Developing Human Resources. https://doi.org/10.1177/1523422313520194

Tooth, J.-A., Nielsen, S., & Armstrong, H. (2013). Coaching Effectiveness Survey Instruments: Taking Stock of Measuring the Immeasurable. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2013.802365

Mcnamara, M. S., Fealy, G. M., Casey, M., O’Connor, T., Patton, D., Doyle, L., & Quinlan, C. (2014). Mentoring, coaching and action learning: Interventions in a national clinical leadership development programme. Journal of Clinical Nursing. https://doi.org/10.1111/jocn.12461

Grant, A. M., & Hartley, M. (2013). Developing the leader as coach: Insights, strategies and tips for embedding coaching skills in the workplace. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2013.824015

Vandaveer, V. V, Lowman, R. L., Pearlman, K., & Brannick, J. P. (2016). A Practice analysis of coaching psychology: Toward a foundational competency model. Consulting Psychology Journal. https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000057

MacKie, D. (2014). The effectiveness of strength-based executive coaching in enhancing full range leadership development: A controlled study. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 66(2). https://doi.org/10.1037/cpb0000005

Will, T., Gessnitzer, S., & Kauffeld, S. (2016). You think you are an empathic coach? Maybe you should think again. The difference between perceptions of empathy vs. empathic behaviour after a person-centred coaching training. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research & Practice. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2016.1143023

Strengths

See this summary from the Values in Action (VIA) Institute

Strengths, goals and values

Linley, P. A., Nielsen, K. M., Gillett, R., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of goals: Effects on goal progress, need satisfaction, and well-being, and implications for coaching psychologists.International Coaching Psychology Review, 5(1), 6-15.

Goals and Values

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Goal striving, need satisfaction, and longitudinal well-being: the self-concordance model. Journal of personality and social psychology, 76(3), 482.

Sheldon, K. M., & Houser-Marko, L. (2001). Self-concordance, goal attainment, and the pursuit of happiness: Can there be an upward spiral? Journal of personality and social psychology, 80(1), 152.​

Goal Theory

Grant, A. M. (2014). Autonomy support, relationship satisfaction and goal focus in the coach–coachee relationship: Which best predicts coaching success? Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 18–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2013.850106

Gabriel, A. S., Moran, C. M., & Gregory, J. B. (2014). How can humanistic coaching affect employee well-being and performance? An application of self-determination theory. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 56–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2014.889184

Stein, D., & Grant, A. M. (2014). Disentangling the Relationships Among Self-Reflection, Insight, and Subjective Well-Being: The Role of Dysfunctional Attitudes and Core Self-Evaluations. The Journal of Psychology, (July 2014), 140121081629004. https://doi.org/10.1080/00223980.2013.810128

Locke, E. a., & Latham, G. P. (2009). Has Goal Setting Gone Wild, or Have Its Attackers Abandoned Good Scholarship? Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(1), 17–23. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2009.37008000

Gollwitzer, P. M. (1999). Implementation intentions: Strong effects of simple plans. American Psychologist. https://doi.org/10.1037/0003-066X.54.7.493

Grant, A. M. (2003). the Impact of Life Coaching on Goal Attainment, Metacognition and Mental Health. Social Behavior and Personality: An International Journal, 31(3), 253–263. https://doi.org/10.2224/sbp.2003.31.3.253

Austin, J. T., Vancouver, J. B., Dulany, D., Diener, E., Kanfer, F., Katzell, R., … Jackson, S. (1996). Goal Constructs in Psychology : Structure , Process , and Content. American Psychology Associations, 120(3), 338–375.

Locke, E. a. (1996). Motivation through conscious goal setting. Applied and Preventive Psychology, 5(2), 117–124. https://doi.org/10.1016/S0962-1849(96)80005-9

Gabriel, A. S., Moran, C. M., & Gregory, J. B. (2014). How can humanistic coaching affect employee well-being and performance? An application of self-determination theory. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 56–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2014.889184

Gregory, J. B., Beck, J. W., & Carr, A. E. (2011). Goals, feedback, and self-regulation: Control theory as a natural framework for executive coaching. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 63(1), 26–38. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0023398

Ordóñez, L. D., Schweitzer, M. E., Galinsky, A. D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2009). On Good Scholarship, Goal Setting, and Scholars Gone Wild. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 82–87. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2009.43479265

Street, H. (2002). Exploring relationships between goal setting, goal pursuit and depression: A review. Australian Psychologist, 37(2), 95–103. https://doi.org/10.1080/00050060210001706736

Lyke, J. a. (2009). Insight, but not self-reflection, is related to subjective well-being. Personality and Individual Differences, 46(1), 66–70. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.09.010

Braunstein, K., & Grant, A. M. (2016). Approaching solutions or avoiding problems? The differential effects of approach and avoidance goals with solution-focused and problem-focused coaching questions. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 9(2). https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2016.1186705

Ordóñez, L. D., Schweitzer, M. E., Galinsky, A. D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2009). Goals Gone Wild: The Systematic Side Effects of Overprescribing Goal Setting. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(1), 6–16. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2009.37007999

Ordóñez, L. D., Schweitzer, M. E., Galinsky, A. D., & Bazerman, M. H. (2009). On Good Scholarship, Goal Setting, and Scholars Gone Wild. Academy of Management Perspectives, 23(3), 82–87. https://doi.org/10.5465/AMP.2009.43479265

Witherspoon, R. (2013). Double-Loop Coaching for Leadership Development. The Journal of Applied Behavioral Science, 1–23. https://doi.org/10.1177/0021886313510032

Grant, A. M. (2012). An integrated model of goal-focused coaching : An evidence-based framework for teaching and practice. International Coaching Psychology Review ●, 7(2), 146–165. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521880903102308

Grant, A. M. (2014). Autonomy support, relationship satisfaction and goal focus in the coach–coachee relationship: Which best predicts coaching success? Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 18–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2013.850106

Leadership

Wang, D., Waldman, D. A., & Zhang, Z. (2014). A meta-analysis of shared leadership and team effectiveness. Journal of Applied Psychology, 99(2). https://doi.org/10.1037/a0034531
Pfeffer, J., Sutton, R. I., Pfeffer, J., & Sutton, R. I. (n.d.). Evidence-Based Management Evidence-Based Management.

Ely, K., Boyce, L. a., Nelson, J. K., Zaccaro, S. J., Hernez-Broome, G., & Whyman, W. (2010). Evaluating leadership coaching: A review and integrated framework. Leadership Quarterly, 21(4), 585–599. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2010.06.003

de Haan, E., Duckworth, A., Birch, D., & Jones, C. (2013). Executive coaching outcome research: The contribution of common factors such as relationship, personality match, and self-efficacy. Consulting Psychology Journal: Practice and Research, 65(1), 40–57. https://doi.org/10.1037/a0031635

Haan, E. De, Culpin, V., & Curd, J. (2011). Executive coaching in practice: what determines helpfulness for clients of coaching? Personnel Review, 40(1), 24–44. https://doi.org/10.1108/00483481111095500

Ely, K., & Zaccaro, S. J. (2011). Recalculating Directions : Evaluating the Effectiveness of Leadership Coaching.

Ladegard, G., & Gjerde, S. (2014). Leadership coaching, leader role-efficacy, and trust in subordinates. A mixed methods study assessing leadership coaching as a leadership development tool. Leadership Quarterly, 25(4), 631–646. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.leaqua.2014.02.002

Motivation

Stone, D. N., Deci, E. L., & Ryan, R. M. (2008). Beyond talk: Creating autonomous motivation through self-determination theory. Journal of General Management, 34(3), 75–91.

Ryan, R. M., & Deci, E. L. (2000). Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. The American Psychologist, 55(1), 68–78.

Deppe, R. K., & Harackiewicz, J. M. (1996). Self-handicapping and intrinsic motivation: buffering intrinsic motivation from the threat of failure. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 70(4), 868–876. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.70.4.868

Sheldon, K. M., Ryan, R. M., Deci, E. L., & Kasser, T. (2004). The independent effects of goal contents and motives on well-being: it’s both what you pursue and why you pursue it. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 30(4), 475–486. https://doi.org/10.1177/0146167203261883

Silva, M. N., Markland, D., Carraca, E. V., Vieira, P. N., Coutinho, S. R., Minderico, C. S., … Teixeira, P. J. (2011). Exercise autonomous motivation predicts 3-yr weight loss in women. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 43(4), 728–737. https://doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181f3818f

Gabriel, A. S., Moran, C. M., & Gregory, J. B. (2014). How can humanistic coaching affect employee well-being and performance? An application of self-determination theory. Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 56–73. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2014.889184

Grant, A. M. (2008). Does intrinsic motivation fuel the prosocial fire? Motivational synergy in predicting persistence, performance, and productivity. The Journal of Applied Psychology, 93(1), 48–58. https://doi.org/10.1037/0021-9010.93.1.48

Linley, P. A., Nielsen, K. M., Gillett, R., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2010). Using signature strengths in pursuit of satisfaction , and well-being , and. International Coaching Psychology Review, 5(1), 6–15.

Sheldon, K. M., & Elliot, A. J. (1999). Gaol Striving, Need Satisfaction, and Longitudinal Well-Being: The Self-Concordance Model. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.76.3.482

Grant, A. M. (2014). Autonomy support, relationship satisfaction and goal focus in the coach–coachee relationship: Which best predicts coaching success? Coaching: An International Journal of Theory, Research and Practice, 7(1), 18–38. https://doi.org/10.1080/17521882.2013.850106

Mindfulness

Brown, K. W., Ryan, R. M., & Creswell, J. D. (2007). Mindfulness: Theoretical Foundations and Evidence for its Salutary Effects. Psychological Inquiry, 18(4), 211–237. https://doi.org/10.1080/10478400701598298

Cavanagh, M. J., & Spence, G. B. (2012). Mindfulness in Coaching: Philosophy, Psychology or Just a Useful Skill? The Wiley-Blackwell Handbook of the Psychology of Coaching and Mentoring, 112–134. https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118326459.ch7

Brown, K. W., & Ryan, R. M. (2003). The benefits of being present: mindfulness and its role in psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 84(4), 822–848.

Kabat-Zinn J., et al. (1992). Effectiveness of a meditation-based stress reduction program in the treatment of anxiety disorders. American Journal of Psychiatry. 1992 Jul;149(7):936-43.

Dane E., & Bradley J. (2014). Examining workplace mindfulness and its relations to job performance and turnover intention. Human Relations. 2014 Jan;67(1):105-128.

Colzato, L., Ozturk, A. & Hommel, B. (2012). Meditate to create: the impact of focused-attention and open-monitoring meditation training on convergent and divergent thinking. Frontiers in Psychology. 2012 Apr;3:116.

Ostafin, B. & Kassman, K. (2012). Stepping out of history: Mindfulness improves insight problem solving. Consciousness and Cognition. 2012 Jun;21(2):1031-1036.

Peak Performance

Maddi, S. R. (2006). Hardiness: The courage to grow from stresses. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 1(3), 160–168. https://doi.org/10.1080/17439760600619609

Schumacher, R. (2001). The Foundation of Excellent Performance. Retrieved from http://www.tdan.com/view-articles/4942/

Cohen, A. B., Tenenbaum, G., & English, R. W. (2006). Emotions and golf performance: An IZOF-based applied sport psychology case study. Behavior Modification, 30(3), 259–280. https://doi.org/10.1177/0145445503261174

Berto, R. (2005). Exposure to restorative environments helps restore attentional capacity. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 25(3), 249–259. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvp.2005.07.001

Foster, S., Lloyd, P. J., & Kamin, S. (2006). Mental Preparation Memorisation, and Improvisation.
Hankes, D. M. (2007). Adolescent Performers and the Family System.

Pilcher, J. J., & Huffcutt, A. I. (1996). Effects of sleep deprivation on performance: a meta-analysis. Sleep, 19(4), 318–326. Retrieved from http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8776790

Crust, L. (2008). A review and conceptual re-examination of mental toughness: Implications for future researchers. Personality and Individual Differences, 45(7), 576–583. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2008.07.005

Markman, A. B., Maddox, W. T., Worthy, D. a, & Markman, B. (2006). and Excelling Under Choking Pressure. Psychological Science, 17(11), 944–948.

Newburg, D., Kimiecik, J., Durand-Bush, N., & Doell, K. (2002). The Role of Resonance in Performance Excellence and Life Engagement. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(4), 249–267. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103545

Day, D. V., Gordon, S., & Fink, C. (2012). The Sporting Life: Exploring Organizations through the Lens of Sport. The Academy of Management Annals, 6(1), 397–433. https://doi.org/10.1080/19416520.2012.678697

Wood, J. V., Elaine Perunovic, W. Q., & Lee, J. W. (2009). Positive self-statements: Power for some, peril for others. Psychological Science, 20(7), 860–866. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9280.2009.02370.x

Gibson, B., Sachau, D., Doll, B., & Shumate, R. (2002). Sandbagging in Competition: Responding to the Pressure of Being the Favorite. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 28(8), 1119–1130. https://doi.org/10.1177/01461672022811010

Marotto, M., Roos, J., & Victor, B. (2007). Collective virtuosity in organizations: A study of peak performance in an orchestra. Journal of Management Studies, 44(3), 388–413. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-6486.2007.00682.x

Losada, M., & Heaphy, E. (2004). The Role of Positivity and Connectivity in the Performance of Business Teams: A Nonlinear Dynamics Model. American Behavioral Scientist, 47(6), 740–765. https://doi.org/10.1177/0002764203260208

Kaplan, S. (1995). The restorative benefits of nature: Toward an integrative framework. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 15(3), 169–182. https://doi.org/10.1016/0272-4944(95)90001-2

Privette, G. (1983). Peak experience, peak performance, and flow: A comparative analysis of positive human experiences. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 45(6), 1361–1368. https://doi.org/10.1037/0022-3514.45.6.1361

Wright, C., Hogard, E., Ellis, R., Smith, D., & Kelly, C. (2008). Effect of PETTLEP imagery training on performance of nursing skills: Pilot study. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 63(3), 259–265. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2648.2008.04706.x

Holmes, P. S., & Collins, D. J. (2006). The PETTLEP approach to motor imagery: a functional equivalence model for sport psychologists, (August 2015). https://doi.org/10.1080/104132001753155958

Poczwardowski, A., & Conroy, D. E. (2002). Coping Responses to Failure and Success Among Elite Athletes and Performing Artists. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 14(4), 313–329. https://doi.org/10.1080/10413200290103581

About the Author

I'm Martin Cole. I am a UK qualified lawyer, a leader within the financial services regulatory and compliance sector and an organisational and executive coach. I have an Master of Science (M.Sc). in coaching psychology and am certified as a coach by the Institute of Executive Coaching and Leadership. I also have a Bachelor of Laws (LLB (Hons.)) and was admitted as a barrister by the Inner Temple (now non-practising). I have lived and worked in London and Sydney and now live near Edinburgh in Scotland with my wife and two daughters. I support Crystal Palace FC, have wide ranging musical tastes (especially Jazz, Blues and Soul) and oppose mediocrity, selfishness and organisations that fail to value their people.

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